AI in Medicine : The physical branch

Today, 

Artificial Intelligence is considered a branch of engineering that implements novel concepts to resolve complex challenges. The application of AI in medicine has two main branches: virtual and physical. 

In the previous article, we presented the virtual branch of Artificial Intelligence in medicine. The second form of application of AI in medicine includes physical objects, medical devices and increasingly sophisticated robots taking part in the delivery of care: Carebots . 

Carebots are a combination of a virtual component and a physical component (hardware), allowing the recognition of the image and completing the « Human Vision ». We can mention the revolutionary technology : Hypa, that helps the doctor move from synchronous to asynchronous intervention [1].

Probably, 

the most promising approach is the use of robots as helpers. For example, a robot companion for the aging population with cognitive decline or limited mobility. Robots are used in surgery as assistant-surgeons or even as solo performers [2]. Most noteworthy, an impressive example of the utility of robots is their ability to communicate with autistic children [3] 

Much as robots that can be useful in the evaluation of changes in human performance in such situations as rehabilitation [4].

Also,

Another area where AI might be helpfully employed is for monitoring the guided delivery of drugs to target organs, tissues or tumours. For example, it is encouraging to learn of the recent development of nanorobots designed to overcome delivery problems that arise when difficulty of diffusion of the therapeutic agent into a site of interest is encountered [3] 

Most of these novel applications of Artificial Intelligene in medicine need further research, particularly in areas of human-computer interactions.

Furthermore,

Moshimo Mori [5] introduced in 1970 the notion of uncanny valley in which an important theme is the human-robot interaction (HRI) field. In these studies humanoid robots were evaluated for their apparent humanity, eeriness and attractiveness as factors making perception of robots either acceptable, feared or rejected [6].

Therfore,

The World Economic 2016 Forum named open Artificial Intelligence ecosystem as one of the 10 most important emerging technologies.

With the unprecedented amount of data available, combined with advances in natural language processing and social awareness algorithms, applications of Artificial Intelligence will become increasingly more useful to consumers.

This is particularly true in medicine and healthcare where there are many data to be utilized from patient medical records and lately also from information obtained by wearable health sensors [3]. 

 

 

References

[1] Cornet G. Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design. J Int Bioethique. 2013;24(4):49-58, 179-80.  

[2] Larson JA, Johnson MH, Bhayani SB. Application of surgical safety standards to robotic surgery: five principles of ethics for nonmaleficence. J Am Coll Surg. 2014;218(2):290-3.  

[3] Hamet Pavel, Tremblay Johanne, Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Metabolism (2017). 

[4] Simonov M, Delconte G. Humanoid assessing rehabilitative exercises. Methods Inf Med. 2015;54(2):114-21.  

[5] Mori M. Bukimi no tani [the un-canny valley]. Energy. 1970;7:33-5.  

[6] Destephe M BM, Kishi T, Zecca M, Hashimoto K, Takanishi A. Walking in the uncanny valley: importance of the attractiveness on the acceptance of a robot as a working partner. Front Psychol 2015;6:1-11.  

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